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(EN)JEUX CLIMATIQUES A MADAGASCAR

Posted by Christopher Neglia Tuesday, April 25, 2017 0 comments

Par Marie-Clarisse Chanoine Dusingize

Le lancement des activités financées par le Programme d’adaptation de l’agriculture paysanne (ASAP en anglais) a eu lieu le 14 et 15 mars 2017 à Morondava, à Madagascar. Ce don s'insère dans la phase II du Projet d’Appui au Développement de Menabe et Melaky (AD2M II). L'atelier organisé fut une opportunité pour l'équipe de projet et ses collaborateurs clés (les ONG de terrain et les partenaires nationaux et régionaux) d’apprendre les uns des autres et d’échanger sur le thème de l’adaptation aux changements climatiques dans le secteur agricole.

L'atelier a débuté par l'organisation d'un jeu de rôle. Cette animation ludique a été menée par l'équipe FIDA pour sensibiliser les participants à l’ampleur des impacts du changement climatique sur la sécurité alimentaire et sur le développement agricole et rural à  Madagascar. Les participants ont donc pu incarner les rôles de responsables institutionnels et d'acteurs locaux en charge de la planification rurale sur une période de 5 ans. Grâce à cette simulation, ils ont ainsi dû décider d’investir soit dans les opérations courantes soit dans l’adoption de mesures innovantes afin de se prémunir contre les effets dévastateurs liés aux changements climatiques tels que les sècheresses et les inondations. Les participants ont pu expérimenter la prise de risque inhérente au statu quo – risque de famine en cas de sécheresse - et les coûts liés à l’adoption de mesures d’adaptation et d’atténuation aux changements climatiques - adoption de techniques et technologies innovantes et plus coûteux. Ce divertissement a suscité des discussions riches sur les enjeux inhérents au développement agricole et rural et les mesures d’adaptation locales.

L’atelier s’est poursuivi par des présentations courtes sur l’état environnemental et les changements climatiques à Madagascar, et plus particulièrement dans les régions du projet, Menabe et Melaky. Les intervenants ont mis en exergue les déterminants et les contraintes qui exacerbent la vulnérabilité des populations rurales causée par la dégradation environnementale et les changements climatiques. Ils ont ensuite émis des suggestions quant à la bonne mise en œuvre du projet. Pour garantir le succès du projet les participants ont recommandé, sur base de leurs expériences de terrain,, d’accentuer la mise en pratique des approches participatives, le partage et la mutualisation de la prise de risque inhérente à l’adoption d’innovation (partage des coûts), la vulgarisation et la diversification des semences améliorées, la promotion de la production intégrée (végétale, animale et la pêche) et le renforcement des capacités locales et des réseaux d’échanges des savoirs et des expériences.

Getting to grips with IFAD’s new Glossary on gender issues

Posted by Francesca Aloisio Thursday, April 20, 2017 0 comments

By Claire Ferry

Every month IFAD’s Gender Desk offers home-made cakes and coffee and the chance to learn about new gender-related initiatives and network with colleagues. At this month’s Gender Breakfast, Belen Couto and a team from IFAD’s Language Services presented the new Glossary on gender issues.

The Glossary contains 130 terms and aims to standardize the use of language related to gender issues in official IFAD documents and publications. Meticulous referenced translation into the four official IFAD languages—Arabic, English, French and Spanish—is a key resource for translators, editors, writers and interpreters. The Glossary is a unique product that will benefit all UN Rome-based agencies and other organizations, and it has been posted on the FAO Term Portal database .

The glossary does more than just standardize language, though. A flip through its pages offers education on key issues facing women and men in the drive towards gender equality.

For instance, the term "femicide" was new to me before it caught my attention in the glossary. The entry includes a definition as expected, but it also cites a source—specifically, the new law in Brazil offering greater protection in the face of the deliberate killing of women. The document offers guidelines for usage, highlights topics of importance and supplies a source for more information.

Importantly, the glossary also clarifies terms that we often take for granted or misuse.

"Gender equality" and "gender equity" are only a few letters different, but they are not interchangeable. The former refers to equal opportunities among men and women, while the latter addresses measures taken to ensure that equality. As the glossary puts it, "Equity can be understood as the means, where equality is the end." Before we slip one of these terms into our next email or publication, understanding its full meaning is key to communicating effectively.

Even the concept of marriage is more complex than first appears. I've often heard the term "arranged marriage," but I unknowingly and wrongly equated it with "forced marriage." The Glossary helped clarify the difference, and it also brought other marital gender issues to my attention—namely, child and early marriage. I found that, not only had I been using some terms incorrectly, but I was also unaware of some important related issues.

A significant amount of work went into providing complete definitions for each term, and their translation into other languages was just as involved. The Language Services team explained the nuances of translating the terms, including the difficulty of maintaining meaning across languages. They also explained the hierarchy of sources used, where international conventions are regarded as top sources.

With positive responses from IFAD staff and other UN organizations, Language Services is considering creating glossaries on other topics. The creators of the Gender Glossary describe it as a "living document," which will be expanded and revised where necessary. Colleagues wishing to add terms to the Glossary were invited to write to Language Services with their proposals.

We sometimes pay scant attention to the words we use in everyday language, but perhaps we should be more attentive. As one of the participants at the breakfast said, “Language can be a wall and language can be a window." As IFAD continues its work to empower women, using the right words is an important tool.

By Elisabeth Steinmayr & Steven Jonckheere

"It is important, when so much effort is being put into irrigation infrastructure and a lot of opportunities are created by a project, to make sure that people can actually benefit from it. We have built the infrastructure and are now aiming at maximizing the impact."

This is what Doro Niang, one of the local champions of Maghama in Mauritania, said with regard to the use of land developed through an IFAD project. We met Doro Niang during the 10-day Learning Route on Securing Land and Water Rights in Senegal and Mauritania from 6 to 16 March 2017, orga-nized by Procasur with technical support from IPAR (Initiative Prospective Agricole et Rurale) under the IFAD grant project Strengthening Capacities and Tools to Scale Up and Disseminate Innovations.




The importance of land and water in contributing to the increase of agricultural production, income, health and sustainable land use have separately been recognized, however, little is understood about their interface. The intricacies of land and water governance are only beginning to be understood. Securing access by rural poor people to land and water rights is key to reducing extreme poverty and hunger, since land and water are among the most important assets that poor rural women and men have.

From Dakar to Maghama and back – the Learning Route 


Procusar took up the challenging task to organize a Learning Route with 22 participants from 9 countries (Burkina Faso, The Gambia, Malawi, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal and Sierra Leone), crossing the border, and thus the river Senegal twice, travelling 1.800 km by bus and car, giving us the possibility to meet with 250 crop and livestock farmers, project coordinators and local champions, translating at times into four different languages.


 The participants, mainly IFAD supported project and government staff, and the team of the Learning Route, made up of Procasur, IPAR and IFAD staff, met up on 6 March in the IFAD office in Dakar for the kick-off workshop, already having in mind the three objectives of the learning experience: Besides learning more about the methodology of the Learning Route, the participants, all working in the field of land and water governance, also shared their previous experience in the thematic areas, the issues their projects are dealing with and the learning needs and objectives they had identified for themselves.
Participant Mato Maman talking about land tenure security in Niger

Land use and allocation plan in Diama 



The day after we embarked on our trip and drove from Dakar north to the region of Saint Louis where are first visit introduced us to the community of Diama. In the region, rich in land and water resources, irrigated agriculture, flood recession farming, and rain-fed agriculture are practiced. The community had been part of the Support Programme for Rural Communities of the Senegal River Valley (PACR-VFS) (2008 - 2015), supported by the French Development Agency and the Irrigation and Water Resources Management Project (IWRM) (2009-2015), and supported by the Millennium Challenge Cooperation. The local champions and community members introduced us to two innovative tools meant to complement institutional arrangements and correct shortcomings of the land legislation:

Land use and allocation plans (POAS) 

The POAS, which development are undertaken in an inclusive and participatory way, identify land use zones, giving priority to activities without excluding others (residential zones, pastoral zones, agro-pastoral zones etc.) The plans essentially consist of rules governing the management of space and natural resources, an organizational framework for decision-making and M&E, and mapping tools. The POAS are legally binding and can be enforced.

Land use and allocation plan in Diama


Land information system (SIF) 

The SIF is a set of principles governing the collection, processing, use and storage of data on the occupation of public land, which informs decision-making. It allows to document three dimensions of land tenure: "who? and how?" by carrying out socio-economic land tenure surveys; “where?" by mapping and a plot numbering strategy. The system is made up of registration procedures, a land allocation map, land administration forms, a register with requests for land allocations, a land regis-ter, and can be managed autonomously by the local authority. Beyond land allocations management, the SIF coupled with the POAS allows a gradual improvement of local territorial and land policy, through a clarification of geographic and land tenure information. The inclusive and participatory approaches used by the community of Diama foster good local governance, democratic processes and representative decision-making. After having spent a very interesting day and a half in Diama, including delicious local food, dance performances and a theatre play by the local youth to celebrate the International Women's day on 8 March, our next destination was Maghama in Mauritania. Our drive took us from Rosso to Kaedi where we spent the night, and allowed for a short stop-over and half-day workshop in M'bout and PASK II where we learnt about the challenges faced when developing land agreements (entente fonciere). The land agreements there are social agreements and are not legally binding: through a territory-centred approach and a consultative process, groups of producers agree on the use of the land. The many hours of driving finally brought us to Maghama, where we were overwhelmed by the welcoming and hospitality of the local community.

Entente Fonciere in Maghama 


When the IFAD-supported Maghama Improved Flood Recession Farming Project (PACDM) (2002 – 2009) was being designed in the 1990's, it was noted that families with a weak status in the in the community would not have been able to access and benefit from the 9000 ha of land that were to be developed. This is why IFAD made the establishment of the entente fonciere, the land agree-ment, a pre-requisite for its funding. The agreement that was then developed in a long consultative process is based on three key principles: justice, solidarity and efficiency.

Field visit it Maghama


What was interesting for all participants was the establishment of the National Coordination, an informal body with representatives of all villages in the Walo (flood recession farming area). Those representatives were natives from the villages, but resided in the capital. Their role was to facilitate the negotiation phase of the agreement while also defending the interests of the beneficiaries during the period of drafting and signing the protocols of the agreement with the State. Not only the learning opportunity was unique in Maghama – far away from hotels and guesthouses we had the chance the live with the community for three days, stay in people's houses, eat delicious food and enjoy an evening of theatre and music performances. Another drive and adventurous boat ride took us then to our last stop in Matam, and thus back to Senegal.

One household, one hectare & pastoral units in Matam/Senegal 


The Agricultural development project of Matam (PRODAM) in Senegal is supported by the West African Development Bank (scaling up of former IFAD-supported project (2003 – 2011)). PRODAM contributed to improving land tenure security by supporting the one household, one hec-tare-principle for allocation of land in village irrigation schemes and the establishment of pastoral units responsible for the management of pastoral resources. In order to guarantee land access in the irrigated areas to returnees and dispossessed people, PRODAM facilitated a regrouping and redistribution of land amongst all families effectively living in the village. Each household could receive only one irrigated plot of up to one hectare, the size of which was calculated on the basis of their operating capacity. By facilitating access to land for returnees and dispossessed people the project hoped to improve their socio-economic situation. Special attention was also given to ensure that also women were recognised as land owners.

Participants and local champions discussing village irrigation schemes

PRODAM has also supported pastoral units to ensure good rangeland management, improve access to water and reduce pressure on the grazing lands. A pastoral unit is made up of a group of localities that - given their economic interests, historical ties and physical proximity - share the same pastoral and agricultural areas and use the same water points.

What did we learn? 


Once back in Dakar we spent one last day together in the IFAD office, holding a wrap-up workshop. This very instructive learning experience left us with some main conclusions: In many cases, water rights become operationalized through user organizations. Ensuring that women, smallholders, livestock keepers, or other poor and marginalized water users are represented in these organizations is an important step to strengthening their water rights. However this is often difficult because of overt resistance from those who do not want to share water rights and decision-making, or because of social challenges of including marginalized groups in local organizations. With irrigation becoming an increasingly private investment, access to capital becomes a determining factor for access to water and land for vulnerable groups.

Participants from Nigeria and Sierra Leone are discussing the take-aways from the Maghama case

 Participants from Nigeria and Sierra Leone are discussing the take-aways from the Maghama case. Officially-recognized rights help ensure that their holders have a “seat at the table” in discussions about further water development or land use changes that may impinge on their rights. Joint plan-ning and modelling of water resource development with government agencies and different user groups helps to put this into practice, but it may require strengthening the capacity of both the agencies and the users. There is no single, optimal property right system for irrigations systems—in developing countries or elsewhere. Rather, we need a range of options and the understanding necessary to be able to tailor them to their (ever-changing) physical and institutional context. This, however, requires that enough time is dedicated to understanding the local context and reaching a consensus through an open and inclusive dialogue.

What's next? 


During the learning journey the participants had worked on their own innovation plans, aimed at replicating innovations in their country/organizations/projects, and the last day provided the space to present the first drafts of these plans and to give a first round of peer-to-peer feed-back. It is important to put enough effort in projects dealing with land and water issues in irrigation schemes into joint planning and modelling of water resource development, promoting more equitable access to water and irrigated land, addressing the issue of access to capital. At the same time we should step up our efforts of documenting and sharing the experiences of IFAD-supported projects in dealing with land issues. This Learning Route and a paper written on the three cases for the 2017 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty are a first step in the right direction. The end of the Learning Route left all participants tired but satisfied and inspired. It is now up to all of us to capitalize on this experience and support the implementation of the ambitious innovation plans. And since after the game is before the game, Procasur and IFAD are already starting to think about the next Learning Route on land tenure – we'll let you know more about it soon.

The Learning Route team – happy about the success of the route © Veronica Wijaya


Useful links 


IFAD brings together experts on migration and remittances

Posted by RachaelKenny Thursday, April 13, 2017 0 comments

IFAD brought together leading experts on migration and remittances in the historical city of Perugia to look at why migrants matter, both in Italy and back home.

Over 80 attendees, including students and journalists, gathered to hear top experts discuss issues around migration and remittances at the panel session, Money Talks - Why Migrants Matter at the International Journalism Festival, the largest annual media event in Europe.

Over 80 people attended the session "Money Talks - Why Migrants Matter" at the International Journalism Festival
The panel of experts included: Adolfo Brizzi, the director in the Office of the Associate Vice President at IFAD; Charito Basa, the founder of the Filipino Women's Council(FWC) and Leon Isaacs the CEO of Developing Markets Associates. Moderating the event was Karima Moual, an award-winning journalist, whose writing and reporting focuses on the Arab World, Middle East policy, Islamic issues and immigration/migration.

The panel discussed the impact money from remittances has on local economies. Last year, 250 million international migrants sent almost half a trillion US dollars back to their communities in developing countries, 40 per cent of which – around US$200 billion – reached rural areas.

"Migrants’ money represents a critical lifeline for millions of households,  helping families raise their living standards above subsistence and vulnerability levels while investing in health, education, housing as well as entrepreneurial activities," said Adolfo Brizzi, Director in the Office of the Associate Vice President at IFAD. "Remittances can reunite families, promote development and slow migration. In Italy for example, migrants send back home about 25 per cent of their earnings, while 75 per cent stays in the country – this is contributing to the country’s GDP and is a win-win situation all round.”

Remittances also offer other opportunities, in particular, "remittances are a great possibility for investment, as they give the opportunity to rebuild rural communities and stabilize families, " said Charito Basa, the founder of the Filipino Women's Council  (FWC). Basa is an economic migrant herself whose reason to come to Italy was to help her family back home.

IFAD estimates that one in ten people originating from a developing country either sends or receives international – or domestic – remittances. Although remittances are critical for communities in developing countries, there is always a risk when sending money.

According to Leon Isaacs, CEO of Developing Markets Associates, migrants lack financial protection when making these transfers:
"To transfer money, different countries implement different laws for the legal and informal migrants,” Isaacs noted. “There is a danger for everybody that wants to transfer money, especially in countries where there isn't a well-developed financial system, if a legal migrant transfers money, they have some sort of protection, but an informal migrant has none, and the country on the receiving end also needs information for its use".

The panel later opened to questions from the audience. One, in particular, addressed the role of women within migration and remittances. 
"Women are great factors of stability due to their remittances, as a majority of international migrants that send money back to their communities in developing countries are women," said Karima Moual, the moderator of the panel.
The panel wrapped up with an interesting view on remittances  mentioned by Adolfo Brizzi is that it might be a way to halt migration, after all, who really wants to leave their home, their country when they are able to live and work there.

Over the last ten years, IFAD has given rural people and communities more options to invest their money and create opportunities for business development and employment in approximately 40 developing countries by piloting over 50 programmes. Learn more about our work with remittances here.

Watch IFAD's Rome to Home video to learn more about migrant remittances.

By Nerina Muzurovic 



Britain’s Prince of Wales visited the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) on 5 April 2017.

As part of the British Royal’s visit, the Permanent Representation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland to the United Nations invited Dr Khalida Bouzar, IFAD Director for the Near East, North Africa and Europe Division, to introduce the work of IFAD in Somalia.

“We have been investing in rural people for the last four decades – targeting the poorest and most vulnerable communities in the most remote areas,” Dr Bouzar said, after greeting His Royal Highness. “IFAD’s investments have so far reached about 464 million people.”

Almost half of IFAD’s ongoing operations are in fragile and conflict-affected countries like Somalia, she added, where IFAD has supported 9 programmes since the 1980s for a total cost of US$140 million and an outreach of 1.8 million people.

In places like Somalia, IFAD’s work is more important than ever, she said. “Many activities designed and financed by IFAD in such areas have proved to be resilient to conflict and still continue.”

Noting that the United Kingdom has demonstrated active leadership in raising awareness of the current food crisis in Somalia, she added, “Our experience shows that even in the most challenging circumstances, investment can bring about positive change in the lives of poor people.”

One good example of positive change brought about under challenging circumstances is the IFAD-financed North-Western Integrated Community Development Programme (Phase II), which ran despite a devastating drought and ongoing conflict in Somalia from 2010 to 2015. The programme reached 1.4 million beneficiaries, of whom 40 per cent were women. Working with 124 communities in 9 districts, this programme focused on improving farming in areas where water is scarce.

Among other measures, the programme helped introduce 15 sand storage dams to hold and absorb floodwater. These dams replenished water sources and allowed people to farm profitably in a community where, previously, water scarcity caused frequent disputes. The Prince of Wales noted that he was familiar with sand storage dams, having seen them in India.

In addition to empowering communities, the sand dams had a markedly positive impact on local women’s lives. “With this project, we see how resilience, security and gender empowerment go hand in hand,” noted Dr Bouzar. “In the village of Aada, for example, a woman herder told us, ‘we used to walk long distances, sometimes the whole day to get water. Now fetching water is easy; in just a few minutes we have water for washing, cooking and cleaning. And a lot of women have become interested in farming.’”
Speaking before the British Royal, Dr Bouzar also introduced two new IFAD projects in Somalia. The first, co-financed by the Italian Development Cooperation, is aimed at irrigation needs in Somalia’s Lower Shebelle region. The second, funded by a regional grant covering Djibouti and Somalia, will provide technology for enhanced farming, rangelands, and watershed management.

Famine begins and ends in rural areas, which is why measures like resilience building, strengthening livelihoods, and keeping animals alive are key. With an eye to the future, IFAD is currently also using climate modelling to carry out climate change vulnerability mapping, along with the World Food Programme (WFP), to assess effects on smallholder agriculture in Somalia.

“Sustainable rural development can be a potent stabilizing force—which is why we have established “FARMS, ”the Facility for Refugees, Migrants, Forced Displacement and Rural Stability,” Dr Bouzar concluded. “We believe tools like FARMS are powerful means of change in places like Somalia, where there are currently 1.1 million internally displaced people.” Giving people the ability to feed their children today is crucial, but it is also of paramount importance that we help the rural poor to secure sustenance for future generations. To accomplish this, IFAD plays a pivotal role in bridging the gap between humanitarian assistance and long-term development.

Despite ongoing conflict in the region, where security remains a problem, IFAD’s work in Somalia will not slacken, she said. At present, new collaboration is being planned with the Italian Development Cooperation to address food insecurity in the country’s Puntland area.

Par Alice Brie
Comment anticiper les retards de pluies et donc les épisodes de sécheresse, les inondations, en l’absence de données climatiques fiables ? Quelle variété choisir quand les pluies sont en retard ? Au Mali, où les phénomènes extrêmes s’intensifient en raison du changement climatique, l’enjeu est de taille car leurs conséquences affecteront directement la production agricole des plus pauvres. Pour s’adapter à ces évolutions climatiques déjà observées, l’un des enjeux est de permettre aux agriculteurs les plus vulnérables d’anticiper ces événements extrêmes pour mieux adapter les techniques culturales. L’approche du PAPAM[1] à travers le don ASAP[2] appuie dans ce sens les petits exploitants pour qu’ils aient un meilleur accès aux informations climatiques et météorologiques.
©PAPAM/village de Baliani, Région de KAYES. Au centre, Adama Tounkara, paysan observateur tenant son carnet de relevé, à sa gauche le représentant de Mali-météo et à sa droite l'agent régional en Planification de l'ASAP, chef d'antenne ASAP de Kita. Les deux paysans en retrait sont les suppléants à M. Tounkara.

« Une perte de production agricole d’environ 17% est envisagée d’ici 2050 »

Le Mali fait partie des pays sahéliens qui sont parmi les plus durement touchés par le changement climatique. Les évolutions observées et les prédictions des tendances conclus à une augmentation de la température moyenne sur l’ensemble du pays, à une diminution progressive de la pluviométrie et une augmentation de la fréquence et de l’ampleur des phénomènes climatiques extrêmes. Plus particulièrement sur la pluviométrie, cette diminution est un phénomène déjà en cours puisqu’une diminution de 20% a été enregistrée de 1951-1970 à 1971-2000. Cette évolution a notamment provoqué une raréfaction des pluies au nord du pays[3]. Ce phénomène va s’amplifier dans les décades à venir. Il se caractérise par des cycles de saisons culturales raccourcis et par une installation des pluies plus tardives[4]. En outre, une perte de production agricole d’environ 17% est envisagée d’ici 2050, elle pourrait atteindre 28% si aucune action d’adaptation n’est entreprise.
Les petits exploitants évoquent déjà une difficulté à planifier les calendriers culturaux et les mouvements de transhumance à cause d’une perte de repères par rapport à l’arrivée des pluies et à leur modèle de répartition sur la saison. Heureusement, ces impacts négatifs peuvent être atténués par la diffusion d’information agro climatique.  

Aider les petits producteurs à prendre la meilleure décision

Le projet ASAP-PAPAM en partenariat avec Mali-météo appuie des groupes locaux formés à l’assistance météorologique dans la production et la diffusion vers les paysans d’information sur l’évolution de la campagne agricole et agropastorale. Ces groupes locaux disséminent des pluviomètres aux producteurs et communes pour comprendre l’installation des pluies dans  bassins de production. En retour, les producteurs reçoivent par les radios locales les conseils agro-métrologiques pour prendre les meilleures décisions de date de semis ou de choix de variétés. 

A ce jour, 750 pluviomètres ont été installés dans la zone d’intervention du projet et des paysans-observateurs et des journalistes ont été formé sur le relevé et la diffusion de l’information météorologique. Les agriculteurs participent désormais activement aux relevés pluviomètriques et leur utilisation montre de bons résultats dans l’aide à la prise à la décision. De plus en plus d’agriculteurs viennent spontanément vers le paysan-observateur pour savoir si les apports en pluie sont suffisants aux plantations ou bien pour des conseils sur le choix des variétés adaptées à la tendance climatique de l’année. 18 radios locales ont été appuyées pour la diffusion d’informations sur l’adaptation au changement climatique et pour la diffusion des résultats d’analyse de ces groupes. C’est ainsi quelque 22 000 exploitants qui peuvent maintenant bénéficier d’informations pluviométriques et près de 4000 exploitants qui bénéficient de données agro météorologique fournies par les groupes d’assistance météorologique. 

Produire et diffuser des données météorologiques ciblées pour mieux anticiper les effets du changement climatique

Fournir des informations crédibles et concrètes sur la météo et le climat à ces agriculteurs vulnérables a donc le potentiel d'atténuer les facteurs de risques qui menacent leurs moyens de subsistance, d'améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et leurs revenus. En fournissant des éléments sur la variation du climat et sur la pluviométrie, ces données peuvent aussi être utilisées pour l'élaboration d'approches et techniques agricoles novatrices, localement appropriées (semences améliorées, systèmes d’irrigation plus adaptés) afin de soutenir de nouveaux moyens de subsistance. Cependant, l’analyse et la diffusion de ces informations climatiques aux agriculteurs sont des processus complexes. Pour que l’information météo soit utile celle-ci doit identifier les informations les plus pertinentes pour des communautés bien ciblées. Se pose ensuite le défi de l’identification des moyens pour communiquer ces informations d'une manière appropriée à l’échelle locale. Enfin l’information météorologique ne peut être correctement utilisée que si des moyens sont mis en place pour évaluer et transmettre l’incertitude de ces mêmes informations. La prise en compte de ce degré d’incertitude permettra aux agriculteurs d’envisager plusieurs solutions en cas d’erreur de prévision. 


[1] Projet d’amélioration de la productivité agricole au Mali.
[2] Programme d’adaptation de l’agriculture paysanne.
[3] Déplacement de 200 km des isohyètes au Sud déjà constaté.
[4] Les premières pluies se déplacent progressivement de mai à aout voir même septembre pour certaines années.

Promoting family farming public policies in Brazil: beyond the main cities

Posted by Francesca Aloisio Wednesday, March 22, 2017 0 comments

By Paolo Silveri, IFAD's Country Programme Manager for Brazil


The need to strengthen the productive and commercial capacity of family farmers in north-east Brazil, one of the poorest regions of the country, was the focus of a forum held in Recife, Brazil, from 15 to 17 March.

The Eighth North-East and Minas Gerais Family Farming Managers Forum was organized by the knowledge-sharing programme Semear (meaning "to sow" in Portuguese), co-financed by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation (AECID).

Over three days, we shared the lessons learned from IFAD-funded operations in Brazil with government representatives, civil society, the private sector and family farmers. The forum emphasized the need for the promotion of public policies that favour area-based development in the interior of the country, beyond the main cities.

Brazil is a major agricultural and industrial power with the strongest economy in Latin America and the seventh strongest in the world. Between 2004 and 2013, the proportion of the population living in poverty decreased from 22 per cent to 8.9 per cent. However, today more than 18 million people still live below the poverty line of whom 8 million are extremely poor. In the north-east part of the country, IFAD's intervention area in Brazil, one in four people in rural areas lives in poverty and in many municipalities poverty rates are above 60 per cent, with some reaching 90 per cent.

In order to reverse this situation and facilitate market access for small- and medium-sized cooperatives in this harsh environment, the forum agreed on the need to link technological innovation to family farming and foster specific policies, including technical assistance, extension services, production investments and financial services. Farmers' access to land was also flagged as a sine qua non for sustainable rural development.

This Forum is one of Brazil's main platforms for public policy dialogue on rural development and for fighting poverty in the country. It also serves as a bridge among the different actors involved in decision-making in state governments and the Federal Government.

Networking for scaling up is a key feature of IFAD's country programme in Brazil. This session of the Forum highlighted the lack of a national strategy for rural development, and the consequent need for political leaders and development workers to discuss priorities and harmonize policies across states and regions, to ensure that recent progress against poverty and in favour of smallholder farmers in north-east Brazil does not get lost due to the current economic crisis. Several development options were discussed in Recife, and an in-depth study on how to open markets for small farmers and artisans was also launched and discussed. This type of "hands-on policy dialogue" ensures harmonization and coordination through experience-sharing, originating mainly from IFAD co-financed projects.

Celebrating International Women’s Day 2017

Posted by Simona Siad Thursday, March 16, 2017 0 comments

To celebrate International Women's Day 2017 officials from the UN Rome-based agencies 
spoke about the importance of closing gender gaps in rural communities.

By Claire Ferry

The yellow mimosa was a badge of honour last week—sold on the streets, pinned onto lapels, attached to chocolates. Italy's iconic symbol of International Women's Day reminded us all of how much there is still be done before we reach gender equality. 

I was greeted with that same yellow flower as I walked into the Food and Agriculture Organization Headquarters (FAO), where the United Nations' Rome-based Agencies—FAO, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the World Food Programme (WFP)—hosted a panel to mark the worldwide celebration. 

The opening session consisted of addresses by José Graziano da Silva, Director-General of FAO; Maria Helena Semedo, Deputy Director-General of Climate and Natural Resources of FAO; Michel Mordasini, Vice-President of IFAD; and Amir Abdulla, Deputy Director of WFP. Following their remarks, a panel of four experts discussed the topic of "Women in the Changing World of Work." Evident throughout both sessions was this year's overall theme, "Step It Up Together with Rural Women to End Hunger and Poverty."

"The need to step up our work with rural women is urgent and vital," Vice-President Mordasini explained in his address. He called for a "deliberate and unambiguous focus" on improving the lives of rural women, outlining the many challenges they face in the workforce and at home. Mordasini made an important connection between gender equality and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda.

 "At IFAD, we have learned from our experience in the field that overcoming gender inequality is integral to transforming rural areas," he said. "We know that achieving sustainable agricultural development and resilience to global risks such as climate change or water scarcity would be 'mission impossible' without fully involving rural women, capitalizing on their knowledge, skills and engagement."

During International Women's Day, IFAD's Vice President called for a "deliberate and unambiguous focus"
on improving the lives of rural women, outlining the many challenges they face in the workforce and at home.

Mordasini's emphasis on women and their role in improving rural communities was echoed by the other speakers as well. As Abdulla stated in his address, "There is no tool for development more effective than the empowerment of women."

The day's events focused on closing the gender gap in rural communities, but the messages still resonated with me.  As the experts rattled off statistics about rural women and relayed stories from the field, I found myself invested in the conversation as more than just a bystander—as a woman, I had a personal stake in this topic.

Kostas Stamoulis, Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of FAO, served as the moderator. In a welcome change from common practice, the panel was made up of four women.

Valeria Esquivel, Economist and Gender Specialist at the International Labour Organization (ILO), first laid the groundwork of women's presence in the workforce. She explained that with 27% fewer chances to participate in the labour market, women are put at a disadvantage from the start.  

The ILO predicts the proportion of people working in agriculture will decrease only slightly by 2030, dipping from 31% to 28% for women and from 28% to 24% for men. This means targeting the gender gap in rural sectors, especially in agriculture, will remain key in reducing world hunger and poverty.

With the facts established, Marzia Fontana of the School of Oriental and African Studies at the University of London took a closer look at the specifics of gender inequality within rural communities. She provided a list of numbers about the gender gap, but Fontana's main point was the many disadvantages rural women face, even within their own communities and households: older women might not have the education necessary to break through barriers;  mothers are obliged to sacrifice incoming-earning opportunities to take care of children and the elderly; and women rarely have access to land or resources. And women of all ages work from dawn till dusk and beyond, with a huge burden of labour that leaves them neither time nor energy to change their lives.




Wafaa El Khoury of the Policy and Technical Advisory Division at IFAD echoed the statements of the other panellists, especially the importance of addressing the multi-dimensional problems of gender equality. What struck me most, though, was her emphasis on involving men in the process. 

"They [men] will either be the gateway or the obstacle," she said. 

Gender gaps in the workforce, forced responsibilities as caretakers, inadequate leadership presence—these issues are not exclusive to rural women, and in that, we can find common ground. The message that comes through time and again, however, is that only by empowering rural women will we win the battle against poverty and hunger.

The final panellist, Enrica Porcari, Chief Information Officer and Director of IT at WFP, closed the discussion with a personal message to all the young women in the room. She told her story of finding unlikely success in the IT industry and explained how she defied the odds. Porcari listed learning the difference between confidence and competence, never compromising oneself and the importance of humility as her pillars of success. 

"Pave the road for others who want to break the [glass] ceiling," she encouraged.

The yellow mimosas are no longer pinned to lapels or sold on the streets, but Porcari's message still rings loudly. IFAD experts are attending the Commission on the Status of Women at the New York United Nations Headquarters from 13 to 24 March, together with representatives of UN Member States, civil society organizations and UN entities. The meeting will continue the discussion of women's economic empowerment in the changing world of work, with a particular focus on the challenges faced by indigenous women. 

One day a year is set aside to celebrate women, but the work towards gender equality is year-round.

"If we are seriously committed to this vision, then 'step it up' means to employ every possible resource at our disposal for the cause," Mordasini said. "It means devoting ourselves to this issue not only on International Women’s Day, but every day."

Young or old, rural or urban—no matter our differences, we all deserve an equal shot at self-fulfilment.



Tchad: Les femmes actrices incontournables face au changement climatique

Posted by Christopher Neglia Wednesday, March 8, 2017 0 comments

                  ©IFAD/WCA Échanges avec les femmes de Saraf sur les effets du changement climatique et les techniques locales d’adaptation.
Par Alice Brie

Malgré le potentiel du secteur agricole tchadien, l’insécurité alimentaire touche la plupart des régions du pays. Ce problème est particulièrement lié à la vulnérabilité des systèmes agricoles face aux aléas et au changement climatiques. Une autre cause est l’inégalité entre les femmes et les hommes, qui demeure un obstacle important pour le développement rural puisque ce sont les femmes qui assurent en grande majorité la production alimentaire du pays. Avec un accès limité aux ressources, aux marchés et à la formation, les femmes sont aussi les premières impactées par le changement climatique, qui à la fois affecte leurs travaux agricoles et touche directement les ménages. Confrontées quotidiennement aux effets de ce changement, les agricultrices tchadiennes sont aussi porteuses de solutions pour s’adapter. Le PARSAT[1] accompagne les ménages vulnérables tout en soutenant l’autonomisation des femmes pour ainsi renforcer la résilience des systèmes de production et des populations face au changement climatique. La première mission de supervision du projet a été l’occasion de rencontrer des femmes membres de cette initiative.

« Pour les femmes, responsables à la fois des tâches domestiques et agricoles, la raréfaction des ressources naturelles et les changements climatiques augmentent directement leurs charges de travail »

Près du lac Fitri, la journée de Kadidja Abouna, débute à 5 heures du matin. Après s’être occupée de ses neuf enfants, elle part travailler de 7h à 18h sur sa parcelle, où elle cultive des haricots, de l’hibiscus et du sorgho. Sans aucune hésitation, elle affirme que ses rendements ont « diminué ces dernières années et que cela est dû aux changements des pluies qui finissent de plus en plus tôt ». Dans les autres localités d’intervention du projet, les constats sont du même ordre. Dans le village de Yao, le président du comité départemental d’action des agriculteurs, note la disparition des périodes de froid propices aux pépinières, la présence de plus en plus marquée d’insectes ravageurs, l’augmentation du nombre de pluies destructrices et des vents violents. A Mébra, ce sont les conflits hommes/nature qui deviennent plus fréquents. Ses habitants notent aussi une forte augmentation des températures et déplorent la baisse du niveau de la nappe ainsi que la disparition d’arbres fruitiers.

©IFAD/Sarah Morgan femme allant remplir ses seaux d’eau au puits.

Pour les femmes, responsables à la fois des tâches domestiques et agricoles, la raréfaction des ressources naturelles et ces changements climatiques augmentent directement leurs charges de travail. Pour les habitantes de Mébra par exemple, la perte du couvert forestier les contraint à commencer leur journée à 3 heures du matin pour la corvée de bois et la collecte d’eau. L’ensablement de la route à Saraf rend lui l’acheminement des marchandises au marché de plus en plus difficile pour les désignées vendeuses.

Au Tchad comme dans la plupart des pays d’Afrique, les femmes n’ont par ailleurs que très peu accès aux ressources économiques et productives qui leur permettraient de rebondir et diversifier leurs activités face aux aléas climatiques. Dans les régions du Centre Ouest, seuls les hommes bénéficient de la propriété des terres. Le droit coutumier empêche les femmes d'hériter de la terre ou du bétail parce qu'elles quittent le clan de leur père pour se marier. En conséquence, les droits sur les ressources productives sont concentrés essentiellement entre les mains des ménages dirigés par des hommes, tandis que les ménages dirigés par des femmes tirent beaucoup moins de revenus des activités agricoles. Ces ménages sont beaucoup plus exposés aux facteurs de risques notamment climatiques qui à la longue entrainent la faim.

Des actrices incontournables pour la protection de l’environnement et la lutte contre la dégradation des terres 

Les effets produits par le changement climatique entrainent la mise en place de stratégies innovantes, développées par les femmes, afin de mieux s’adapter et indirectement de protéger leurs environnements. Établissant des liens entre la désertification des sols, l’augmentation du temps de travail nécessaire à la corvée de bois et la disparition du couvert forestiers, les habitantes de Moito et de Mébra ont mis en œuvre des techniques efficaces, qui permettent de restaurer la fertilité des sols et d’économiser la quantité de bois nécessaire au ménage.


©IFAD/WCA, Agricultrice arrosant ses plants de salade grâce un puits maraicher financé par le PARSAT


Les femmes plantent par exemple des arbres à proximité des cultures pour faire face à la désertification. Avec l’appui du PARSAT, elles intègrent plus particulièrement le rôle éco-systémique des arbres pour les sols grâce aux apports en matière organique et la régulation hydrologique qu’ils produisent. Des fagots de bois consommés, elles réutilisent le charbon afin de chauffer d’autres aliments, ce qui a pour effet de limiter l’usage de nouveaux fagots et indirectement de réduire leur impact sur les forêts avoisinantes. Elles établissent de même une planification détaillée de la répartition en eau par activité (cuisine, hygiène, de boisson) et les quantités nécessaires pour chacun des membres du ménage. Cela leur permet ainsi de réduire la quantité journalière d’eau prélevée, et surtout de limiter le nombre d’allers et retour jusqu’au forage. Dans certaines localités, les femmes observant une meilleure rétention des eaux de pluies dans les bas fonds, privilégient les travaux agricoles dans ces zones. Elles utilisent de même des semences à cycles courts ou précoces afin de s’adapter au démarrage tardif des pluies et obtenir de meilleurs rendements.

Soutenir l’autonomisation des agricultrices pour renforcer la résilience des ménages

Kadidja, elle, a pris sa décision juste après que son mari soit parti en exil. En novembre, elle a rejoint un groupement d’agriculteurs soutenu par le PARSAT. Kadidja voit dans cette organisation paysanne composée de 27 membres dont dix femmes, « un objectif commun » : une meilleure gestion des bénéfices à travers un système d’épargne communautaire, qui lui permettra de mieux investir dans sa parcelle, d’augmenter sa production et le revenu de son ménage. Au sein du groupement deux femmes possèdent un rôle clé : Safi Issa est la comptable et Kadidja elle même s’occupe de la vente de la production. Le projet formera ces femmes en particulier au leadership et à la prise de parole afin qu’elles intègrent le comité de gestion agricole du groupement et qu’il prenne mieux en compte les besoins de son groupement et celui des autres femmes.

Kadidja voit aussi dans le PARSAT l’opportunité d’obtenir des formations techniques et un accès à des technologies agricoles pour qu’elle puisse s’adapter au mieux aux nouvelles contraintes climatiques auxquelles son milieu agricole doit faire face. Le FEM (Fonds pour l’Environnement Mondial), le FIDA avec l’ASAP (Programme d’adaptation de l’agriculture paysanne) appuieront à travers ce projet les ménages ruraux les plus vulnérables et en particulier les femmes afin d’accroître leur production agricole sur le long terme, de gérer les ressources naturelles et les écosystèmes agricoles de manière durable, mais aussi d’améliorer la conservation, la transformation et la commercialisation des produits animaux et agricoles, leur proposant ainsi des ressources complémentaires. L’approche est double puisque le projet inclut des mesures d’atténuation pour réduire les risques climatiques (notamment à travers la diffusion de données météorologiques), et des mesures d’adaptation afin de minimiser les effets du changement climatique. La combinaison de ces deux aspects permettra aux femmes d’améliorer leurs conditions d’existence et la sécurité alimentaire des ménages tout en leur donnant les moyens d’amortir l’impact de futurs chocs.


[1] Projet d’amélioration de la résilience des systèmes agricoles au Tchad.

Where there is water, there is life

Posted by Francesca Aloisio Tuesday, March 7, 2017 0 comments

The impact of water and rural infrastructure rehabilitation in Mozambique.

By Magali Marguet and Mawira Chitima

Yumma used to walk 3km, five times a day, to the nearest Limpopo river to fetch about 125 liters of water for her family. Normally, the five 25 liters containers needed per day were transported on Yumma head one by one, but over the last two years, her life has changed completely. Thanks to her community’s new multifunctional borehole, this morning she watered her family garden and later she will work with the other women of the village at their art and craft group.

Yumma, 40, lives in Matxinguetxingue, a semi-arid region in the Gaza province of southern Mozambique. It’s a small village of 89 households that depends on the subsistence farming of cattle and goats. She has four children and her eldest son helps tend the animals. Like most men in the community, her husband is a migrant worker in South Africa.

For years, growing vegetables to supplement the family diet was only possible in the wetlands 5 km from the village. But life for Yumma and her neighbours has changed radically. A borehole with 81 meters underground and a solar-powered pump is now supplying the village with up to 18,000 liters of fresh and clean water a day. The system has five water points: two for domestic water supply, one for family gardens, one for clothes washing and one the village’s animals. The community and its Water User Association (WUA) has been empowered. 
It all started with the idea of upgrading the borehole and constructing new water points to increase the community's resilience to drought, to manage water sources more effectively and to supply it to the animals’ drinking troughs. In 2012, the IFAD-funded Pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) was set up to address climate resilience, land tenure security and gender equity. The project effectively started three years later, encompassing horticulture, cassava and red meat value chain development, with the construction and rehabilitation of hydro-regulators in irrigation schemes. Other interventions include: the construction of multifunctional boreholes, shade clothes for year round horticulture production and the establishment of cattle fairs.
Being the animal husbandry activity the main source for income generation for almost all the household in Matxinguechingue village, the water supply reliability, and availability for cattle is seen by the beneficiaries as a boost to increase red meat production and hence increase the local community well-being.

Yumma's case illustrates the benefits gained with the upgrading of the Matxinguetxingue borehole. With the upgrading of the borehole, Yumma and other women are able to save some time which is used to generate new income from arts and crafts, but the advantages go far beyond this. Access to a reliable supply of water is priceless, as is the reduced gruelling labour for women and young girls and the corresponding increase in health and lifespan.

The rehabilitation of the Matxinguetxingue borehole also highlights the link between domestic and commercial water supply. Rural infrastructure interventions like this can have major implications on smallholder livelihoods, land management and resilience to climate change.

In fact, the situation has changed very quickly and positively in the districts covered by the PROSUL. The project has been such a success that the demand for similar borehole stations has increased. From the 14 achieved so far, it has now been significantly extended with a further 28 due to scaling-up. In the local currency, that will represent a total cost of 3.7 million Metical (USD 52.857,14) – approximately $105 per person, taking the example of the number of people and cattle in Matxinguetxingue.
A water through for cattle drinking in Matxinguetxingue
The PROSUL project is now at half-way of its implementation and itis already clear that its success must be evaluated from a wider perspective. Water and rural infrastructure interventions have significant impact on people’s livelihoods, their health and their resilience to climate change. And on a very personal level, for people like Yumma, it really is life-changing.


Mozambique - Pro-poor value chain development project in the Maputo and Limpopo Corridors (PROSUL) mid-term review mission – December 2016

IFAD Governing Council: Day 2 highlights

Posted by Francesca Aloisio Wednesday, March 1, 2017 0 comments

Recognizing the role of Indigenous Peoples

By Claire Ferry


The first day of IFAD's 40th session of the Governing Council was marked by keynote speakers and the election of the Fund's next president, Gilbert F. Houngbo. The second day, however, brought the focus back to the heart of the organization—the people it serves.

The biennial gathering of the Global Meeting of the Indigenous Peoples' Forum was held earlier in the week at IFAD's headquarters and it called on representatives from across the world to discuss indigenous peoples' involvement in IFAD-supported projects. Those representatives carried their message into the second day of the Council, voicing their praises and concerns to IFAD Member States in a panel discussion.

Pope Francis speaks to indigenous peoples' representatives

Just before the Council reconvened for the panel, the indigenous peoples' representatives attended a closed meeting with Pope Francis. He stressed the delicate balance between forging ahead with development while also respecting and protecting the rights of indigenous peoples.

"The right to prior and informed consent should always prevail," Pope Francis said. "Only then is it possible to guarantee peaceful cooperation between governing authorities and indigenous peoples, overcoming confrontation and conflict."

Francis highlighted the importance of women and young people in indigenous communities, urging governments to recognize the rights of all those involved. To bring about this change, the Pope proposed IFAD's funding and expertise as a "road map" to navigate the development that has too often left indigenous peoples in its wake.

"I think the Pope's words are important," Mirna Cunningham, President of the Center for Indigenous Peoples’ Autonomy and Development, said. "We have to remember that technological and economic development is not progress in itself, and IFAD can play a very big role with technical and financial support to ensure that these measures are considered with indigenous peoples."

As a token of all the indigenous peoples represented, delegation members offered gifts to the pope: an alpaca coat from Bolivian Andes, a blanket from the Igorot people in the Philippine Cordillera, and a Miskitu-translated bible from Nicaragua. Each gift serves as a reminder of the human faces behind every project.



Governing Council's panel on indigenous peoples

Following the meeting with Pope Francis, Cunningham mediated the Panel of Indigenous Peoples with representatives from Asia, Africa and South America.

Joan Carling, a former member of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, praised IFAD for its clear actions in promoting indigenous peoples' right to free prior and informed consent.

She explained how better implementation of projects leads to real empowerment, allowing these communities to be at the centre of the decision-making processes. Specifically, Carling cited IFAD's ability to track the progress of its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which she believes contributes to indigenous peoples' self-determined development.

One area she suggested bolstering, though, was IFAD's securing of women's land rights and initiatives. "We know that indigenous women are working on the lands, so the entitlement of women and the protection of lands is critical to the survival of indigenous peoples," Carling said.

Elifuraha Laltaika, a member of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, followed Carling's remarks with an update on the state of indigenous people in Africa, highlighting the lack of recognition of these communities by governments. Though the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights exists, Laltaika doubts how closely most governments have followed its guidelines. Despite this, he remains hopeful because of constitutional reforms in countries like Kenya and Tanzania. Constitutional inclusion of indigenous communities' rights, along with involvement by agencies like IFAD, opens the door to more extensive change in African countries.


Echoing Laltaika's emphasis on recognition, Maria Teresa Zapeta Mendoza, Programme Manager for the International Indigenous Women’s Forum, shifted the discussion to the marketing of indigenous peoples' products while maintaining respect for their culture. She again reinforced the importance of governments' acknowledgement of the peoples' rights, but furthered the conversation, saying, "IFAD and governments should see us as allies and should recognize that we are legally entitled people." Mendoza told of women in Ecuador trying enter the international fish market and people in Chile achieving sustainability through ecotourism. She called for support from both IFAD and governments, which would allow indigenous peoples to compete alongside everyone else in the marketplace.

Jorge Alberto Jiménez, General Director of the Bureau for Comprehensive Social Development of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, built on Mendoza's insistence that indigenous people could indeed occupy a competitive place in the market. He spoke proudly of El Salvador's indigenous population and its extensive knowledge of natural medicine, but acknowledged it needs the help of institutions like IFAD to jumpstart progress. Jiménez also recalled the genocide of nearly 30,000 indigenous people in 1932 and its role in El Salvador's history today: "We have to remember that our history is not in museums; it's in the hands of the people." With that, he called for constitutional reform and stronger implementation and monitoring of the policies in place.

To conclude the panel, Cunningham invited to the stage special guest Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Tauli-Corpuz acknowledged the tenth anniversary of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and praised IFAD for its outstanding implementation of the declaration. Though indigenous peoples still suffer from continued mistreatment, she urged IFAD and governments to listen to the aspirations of these communities and enter into multi-stakeholder partnerships.

Looking ahead: President-elect Gilbert F. Houngbo

The focus of the 40th Governing Council was appointing the next president of IFAD, but amidst such a monumental event, the president-elect himself did not lose sight of the rural people the Fund serves.

“I have come from the rural world," said Houngbo, a native of Togo. "I have first-hand knowledge of the harshness of this kind of life.”

The Indigenous Peoples' Forum and the Governing Council have concluded, but the work now truly begins as President Nwanze begins to hand over the reins to Houngbo. Throughout it all, though, it is the people who will undoubtedly remain the focus of IFAD's operations.